Understanding theory (1)
Then two or more concepts that interplay with each other comprise conceptual systems. In other words, relationships between two or more concepts connect these concepts together and form a conceptual system. Remember here that the purpose and utility of a theory or conceptual system, is to understand the world, specifically, to identify, describe, organize, differentiate, predict and explain the delimited portion of the experienced world.
1. “Reality is merely an illusion.”
To put it simply, a theory consists of concepts or construct that are constructed from lower-level concepts, relationships between concepts and the assumptions on which relationships draw, and testable hypothesis derived from these relationships. Next I will explicate some noteworthy features in this definition of theory.
There is a difference between science and technology. Science is a method of answering theoretical questions; technology is a method of solving practical problems. (1) Science has to do with discovering the facts and relationships between observable phenomena in nature and with establishing theories that serve to organize these facts and relationships. Technology has to do with tools, techniques, and procedures for implementing the findings of science.
But, it is not that simple and easy to approach the reality. Before we begin to explore the reality of the world, we have to deliberate on the action of exploration itself, we have to examine the angle or perspective from which we look into the problem.
We are all familiar with the abuses of technology. (5) Many people blame technology itself for widespread pollution, and even social decay---so much so that the promise of technology is obscured. That promise is a cleaner and healthier world. If wise applications of science and technology do not lead to a better world, what else will?
Jaccard, J., & Jacoby, J. (2011). Theory construction and model-building skills: A practical guide for social scientists: Guilford Press.
We found that we have quite different perspectives to approach realty. There are more perspectives on how people think about reality. But here we only focus on two of them. The first belief, termed realism, believe that reality exists independently of any human presence and there is an external world comprised of objects that follow a myriad of natural facts and laws. What we do is only to discover these facts and laws. The other belief termed social constructionist, however, hold that reality is merely an illusion (also by Albert Einstein) and a reflection of human mind on the world. The reality depends on a particular time and social context, varies with the time and social context. Both the two beliefs have supporters. In my understanding, realism is more like the doctrine natural scientists hold and support. For example, physicists probably would say the universe is the reality and it does exist no matter what you think of it. We can only strive to discover a piece of laws from the reality. Social constructionist, however, is advocated by social scientists because many subjects in social science like the courage, attitude, politics and so on are all construction of human mind. All of them are tied to a particular time and social context.
Albert Einstein once said, ‘the whole of science of nothing more than an extension of everyday thinking.’ As we know, people think everyday because they want figure out and understand the thing around them, specifically, the reality or the truth of things. In this sense, science is nothing different from everyday thinking.